Status of Forest in Bihar

Thursday, August 27, 2020

In undivided Bihar about 17% of total geographical area was forest amounting to 29.48 lakh hectare. After it's division in 2000,  the forest cover in Bihar remained only 6.87% amounting to 6.16 lakh hectare of its total geographical area. By this division 79% of the total forest went to Jharkhand and only 21% remained in Bihar.

India State of Forest Report (ISFR) Reports and Status of Forest in Bihar

According to the ISFR  Reports 2019 and 2021 total total forest cover in Bihar is increased from 7306 Sq. Km to 7381 Sq. Km between 2017 and 2019 i.e. an increase of 0.01%. Now Forest Cover in Bihar increased from 7.76 % to 7.84% of its total geographical area.

Table-1: Forest Cover in Bihar (ISFR Report s - 2017 & 2019(All data are in Sq. Km)
ISFR Report 2019 2021
VDF 333 333
MDF 3280 3286
OF 3693 3762
Total 7306 7381
Total (%) 7.76% 7.84%
VDF- Very Dense Forest
MDF- Moderately Dense Forest
OF- Open Forest

According to the ISFR Report 2019 and 2021 tree cover in Bihar was increased from 2003 Sq. Km (ISFR-2017) to 2341 Sq. Km (ISFR-2021) . According to this report about  1131.60 hectares  of forest land was divested to non forestry use between 1st January, 2015 to February, 2019.

The top three districts which registered maximum growth in forest cover during 2019-21 in Bihar  was Banka (16.29 Sq. Km), Jamui (13.22 Sq. Km) and Gaya(12.24 Sq. Km). While the top three districts, which registered maximum decline in forest cover during the same period was Kaimur (4.83 Sq. Km), Supaul (4.46 Sq. Km) and Rohtas (2.32 Sq. Km).

Distribution of Forests in Bihar

The distribution of forests in Bihar is not uniform. Only about 2.3% of the total geographical area of Plains in Bihar have forest cover. Major chunk of forests in Bihar are localised boundary regions such as North-Western, North Eastern, Eastern and Southern Boundaries of the state. 

Table-2: Distribution of Forest in Bihar (Area-wise)

District Area(Sq. Km.)
Kaimur 1051.56 (31.56%) (Highest)
Paschim Champaran 903.34 (17.28%)
Rohtas 669.91 (17.26%)
Jehanabad 4.43 (0.48%)
Arwal 4.14 (0.65%)
Shekhpura 1.19 (0.17%) (Lowest)

Table-2: Distribution of Forest in Bihar (Percentage-wise)

DistrictArea(Sq. Km.)
Kaimur(31.56%) (Highest)
Shekhpura(0.17%) (Lowest)

    Ranking of Forest Types in Bihar (Percentage-wise):

    1. Northern Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest: 29.97%
    2. Dry Siwalik Sal Forest: 5.20%

    Ranking of Forest Types in Bihar (Area-wise):

    1. Northern Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest: 2266.39 Sq. Km.
    2. Dry Siwalik Sal Forest: 392.89 Sq. Km.
    • The green cover in Plains region is mainly due to plantation of Mango, Jamun, Mahua, Neem, Sisam, Lemon, Litchi, Banana etc.

    Carbon Stock in Bihar

    The total carbon Stock in Bihar is about 56.881 million tonne. Which is about 0.80% of the total carbon stock in India. 

    Note:- Carbon stock is the amount of carbon sequestered from the atmosphere and stored in forests system mainly in living Biomass and soils.

    Per-capita Forest Cover in Bihar 

    Per capita forest cover in Bihar is about 0.02 hectare, which is four times lower than India's average per-capita forest coverage, which is about 0.08 hectare. And very much lower when compared with the world's average per capita forest cover which is about 0.5 hectare.

    Claims of the Bihar Government

    Rejecting the ISFR Reports of 2019 and 2017 in 2020, Forest Department of the Government of Bihar claimed about 15% of green cover in Bihar and aiming to increase it to 17% by 2020. Forest Department argued that the reason behind lower forest cover in Bihar in ISFR Reports of 2017 and 2019 was mainly due to frequently changing survey methodology of ISFR.

    Causes of Low Forest Cover in Bihar

    • More than 88.7% of the total population of the state are living in rural areas and most of them are engaged in agricultural practices. Which led to Expansion of agricultural land by cutting down forests. 
    • Illegal cutting of forest trees for the purpose fo using them as fuel for household purposes.
    • Decrease in the level of Groundwater (mainly in South Bihar) led to drying of trees.
    • Cutting of forests for infrastructural development like roads, railway lines and other amenities in hte state.
    • Tribal activities also led to decline in the forest cover in the state, like Slash and Burn method of farming used by the tribes in the state.
    • Frequent floods and drought in the state also led to decline in the forest cover in the state.