Irrigation and Cropping Pattern in Bihar

Sunday, August 23, 2020

Every year North Bihar faces floods and South Bihar faces drought in every 2-3 year. These paradigm itself signify the status of irrigation systems in Bihar. Due to very weak irrigation system cropping pattern also get affected and farmers remained with very lesser number of choices of crops to cultivate.
Agricultural Pattern in Bihar

Irrigation Pattern

Erratic Rainfall and recurrent droughts lead to increased dependence over irrigation system but the current irrigation system is not adequate in the state.

Only about little over 50% farm lands are irrigated by proper irrigation and out of that about 63% are irrigated by Tube Wells and only 31% are irrigated by modern Canal system and only 31% are irrigated by modern canal system, are irrigated by tanks, Traditional wells and some other local sources.

Irrigation Pattern in Bihar

During 2017-18 highest irrigated Land area in Bihar was in Rohtas District (38.13 lakh hectares), while the lowest irrigated land area was in Sheohar (26.25 thousand hectares).

Cropping Pattern

During 2018-19 the cropping pattern in Bihar was as follows:- 

  1. Foodgrain (94.04%)  - Cereals (87.10%)(within Cereals rice and wheat together account more than 70%) and Pulses (6.94%). 
  2. Oil Seeds (1.46%).
  3. Sugarcane (3.26%).
    Cropping Pattern in Bihar

Major Crops and their Major Producers

Crops in Bihar is cultivated in all the three seasons i.e.

  1. Kharif 
  2. Rabi
  3. Zayad

Across all seasons some major crops cultivated in Bihar and their major producer districts in Bihar are as follows:-

1. Paddy/Rice

In Bihar more than 80 varieties of farm land area. In North-East Bihar 3 crops of rice are grown while in North Western Bihar two crops of rice are grown and in Southern Bihar only one crop of rice is grown.

In terms of productions major producers of rice in Bihar are Rohtas>Aurangabad>Kaimur.

in terms of productivity (kg/ha) major producers are Rohtas>Arwal>Aurangabad

2. Wheat 

This is the second most cultivated crops in Bihar, it s cultivated on about 50% of all irrigated land are in Bihar.

In terms of productions major producer districts of wheat in Bihar are Rohtas> Arwal> Aurangabad

in terms of Productivity (kg/ha) major producer districts of wheat are Madhepura> Begusarai> Rohtas.

3. Maize

This is cultivated mainly in moist climate and rice cultivating regions in Bihar.

Major producers in terms of productivity are Purnea> Araria> Supaul.

4. Pulses

In mainly Arhar, Gram urad, Masoor, Moong and Khesari and grown. 

In terms of Production largest  producers are Katihar>Purnea>Araria are major producers.

Purnea>Araria>Supaul are major producers of pulses in terms of productivity.

5. Oil Seeds

Major producers of oilseeds are Shahabad>West Champaran>East  Champaran>Siwan>Muzaffarpur>Purnea.

6. Sugarcane

This is one of the most important commercial crops of Bihar . It provides raw material to one of the largest industries i.e. sugarcane industries in Bihar.

Sugarcane production stood at 182.97 lakh tonnes, however productivity has fallen from 69.06 tonne/ha in 2017-18 to 60.15 5 tonne/hectare in 208-19.

Western Champaran alone accounts for about 58.3% of total production of the state.

In terms of productivity Patna is best district in Bihar with 84.77 tonne/ha but productivity with 46.14 tonne/ha productivity.

7. Jute

This is second most important commercial crop in Bihar after sugarcane.

Jute is mostly cultivated in North-Eastern districts of Bihar. The major producers of Jute in Bihar are Katihar>Saharsa>Muzaffarpur.

8. Horticulture

In last two decades horticulture has emerged one of the most best agricultural enterprise in Bihar. It has two components i.e. Fruits and Vegetables.

I. FruitsTotal production fruits in Bihar stood at 42.29 lakh tonnes in 2018-19. It registered annual growth rate of 4.9%. Annual growth rate of 4.9%. Major fruits produced in Bihar are litchi, Banana, mango, Guava, Pineapple etc.

II. Vegetables- Since the implementation of National Horticulture Mission (2005), vegetable production got major push, which resulted into annual growth rate of 7.52% 

Important vegetables cultivated in Bihar are tomato, carrots, cucumber, radish finger, cabbage, potato, onion, Brinjal, Bottleguard, cauliflower etc.