Erratic Rainfall and recurrent droughts lead to increased dependence over irrigation system but the current irrigation system is not adequate in the state.
Only about little over 50% farm lands are irrigated by proper irrigation and out of that about 63% are irrigated by Tube Wells and only 31% are irrigated by modern Canal system and only 31% are irrigated by modern canal system, are irrigated by tanks, Traditional wells and some other local sources.
|Irrigation Pattern in Bihar|
During 2018-19 the cropping pattern in Bihar was as follows:-
- Foodgrain (94.04%) - Cereals (87.10%)(within Cereals rice and wheat together account more than 70%) and Pulses (6.94%).
- Oil Seeds (1.46%).
- Sugarcane (3.26%).
Cropping Pattern in Bihar
Major Crops and their Major Producers
Crops in Bihar is cultivated in all the three seasons i.e.
Across all seasons some major crops cultivated in Bihar and their major producer districts in Bihar are as follows:-
In Bihar more than 80 varieties of farm land area. In North-East Bihar 3 crops of rice are grown while in North Western Bihar two crops of rice are grown and in Southern Bihar only one crop of rice is grown.
In terms of productions major producers of rice in Bihar are Rohtas>Aurangabad>Kaimur.
in terms of productivity (kg/ha) major producers are Rohtas>Arwal>Aurangabad
This is the second most cultivated crops in Bihar, it s cultivated on about 50% of all irrigated land are in Bihar.
In terms of productions major producer districts of wheat in Bihar are Rohtas> Arwal> Aurangabad
in terms of Productivity (kg/ha) major producer districts of wheat are Madhepura> Begusarai> Rohtas.
This is cultivated mainly in moist climate and rice cultivating regions in Bihar.
Major producers in terms of productivity are Purnea> Araria> Supaul.
In mainly Arhar, Gram urad, Masoor, Moong and Khesari and grown.
In terms of Production largest producers are Katihar>Purnea>Araria are major producers.
Purnea>Araria>Supaul are major producers of pulses in terms of productivity.
5. Oil Seeds
Major producers of oilseeds are Shahabad>West Champaran>East Champaran>Siwan>Muzaffarpur>Purnea.
This is one of the most important commercial crops of Bihar . It provides raw material to one of the largest industries i.e. sugarcane industries in Bihar.
Western Champaran alone accounts for about 58.3% of total production of the state.
In terms of productivity Patna is best district in Bihar with 84.77 tonne/ha but productivity with 46.14 tonne/ha productivity.
This is second most important commercial crop in Bihar after sugarcane.
Jute is mostly cultivated in North-Eastern districts of Bihar. The major producers of Jute in Bihar are Katihar>Saharsa>Muzaffarpur.
In last two decades horticulture has emerged one of the most best agricultural enterprise in Bihar. It has two components i.e. Fruits and Vegetables.
I. Fruits- Total production fruits in Bihar stood at 42.29 lakh tonnes in 2018-19. It registered annual growth rate of 4.9%. Annual growth rate of 4.9%. Major fruits produced in Bihar are litchi, Banana, mango, Guava, Pineapple etc.
II. Vegetables- Since the implementation of National Horticulture Mission (2005), vegetable production got major push, which resulted into annual growth rate of 7.52%
Important vegetables cultivated in Bihar are tomato, carrots, cucumber, radish finger, cabbage, potato, onion, Brinjal, Bottleguard, cauliflower etc.