Land Resources in Bihar

Sunday, August 23, 2020

The total geographical area of Bihar is about 94,163 sq. Km, and Bihar ranks at 12th in India in terms of total geographical area. But on the other hand Bihar is most densely populated State in India, which makes Land resources in Bihar inadequate. 
Agricultural Pattern in Bihar

Land Holding in Bihar

According to Census Report 2011,  about 88.7% population live in rural areas in Bihar which is coupled with high density and large family size, which ultimately results into most of the farmers having very low land holding sizes.

Type of Farmers (Land Holding) Famers(%)
Marginal (0-1 ha) 91.21
Small (1-2 ha) 5.75
Small-Medium(2-4 ha) 2.52
Medium (4-10 ha) 0.493
Large (>10 ha) 0.018

Land Use Pattern in Bihar

According to Economic survey of Bihar 2020-21, in Bihar about 53.9% of total geographical area is used for sowing crops. While rest 45.6% is used for other purposes or are unculturable, fallow, forested, barren or tree cropped and pasture lands. 

  1. Net Sown Area - 53.9%  
  2. Total Uncultured Land - 45.6%
  3. Unculturable Wastes     - 0.5%

The total unculturable lands include Forest(6.6%) Barren(4.6%), Land put Non-agricultural purposes(23.3%), Culturable Wastes(0.5%), Pastures and Tree crops(2.8%) and Fallow(12.8%)

Zonal Classification of Lands in Bihar 

Bihar's Land can be classified into three zones on the basis of Climatic conditions:- 

  1. Zone-I = North-West Bihar
  2. Zone-III = North-East Bihar
  3. Zone-III = South Bihar

1. Zone-I

In this zone 13 districts of North-western Bihar are included these are West Champaran, East Champaran, Gopalganj, Muzaffarpur, Saran, Siwan, Vaishali, Sheohar, Sitamarhi, Darbhanga, Madhubani, Samastipur and Begusarai.

  • Average Rainfall- 104 cm - 145 cm (124.5cm).
  • Temperature(Maximum/Minimum) - 36.6° Celsius/7.7° Celsius.
  • Main Crops - Paddy, wheat, Mustard(Black), Potato, Maize, Sweet Potato and Lentil.

This is the most fertile zone of Bihar having highest crop production due to sufficient water availability through rivers like Gandak, Bagmati, Burhi Gandak, Ghaghara etc. as well as through the Triveni Canal on Gandak.

2. Zone-II

there are 9 districts in this zone. Which are Supaul, Saharsa, Madhepura, Khagaria, Araria, Kishanganj, Purnea, Katihar and North- Bhagalpur.

  • Average Rainfall- 120-170 cm (145cm)
  • Temperature (Maximum/Minimum) - 33.8° Celsius
  • Main Crops- Jute, Paddy, Wheat, potato mustard, Moong, Toria etc.

Zone-II is flood affected region. This zone is known for its commercial agricultural practices.

3. Zone-III

This zone is further subdivided into two sub-zones i.e. 

I. Zone-IIIA 

In this sub-zone there are six districts included i.e. Shekhpura, Lakhisarai, Jamui, Munger, Banka, and southern Bhagalpur.


In this zone total 11 districts are included, those are Kaimur, Rohtas, Bhojpur, Buxar, Aurangabad, Arwal, Jehanabad, Gaya, Patna, Nalanda and Nawada.

  • Annual Average Rainfall- 99cm-124cm (111.5cm).
  • Mean Temperature(Maximum/ Minimum) - 37.1° Celsius/7.8° Celsius M
  • Main Crops - Paddy, wheat, Gram, Lentil, Mustard.