|International Borders||Length(in Km)|
1. India-Pakistan Border
I. Radcliffe Line/International Border
II. Line of Control (LoC)
- Constant ceasefire violations by Pakistan.
- Ceasefire violations are done to give cover up fire to militants and ISI agents infiltrating in India.
- Pakistan promotes cross-border terrorism to India.
- Drug paddling through international border as well as through LoC, especially in Punjab.
- About 199 Kms boundary in Kachchh sector is not appropriately demarcated, hence this border also faces illegal infiltration and smuggling.
- Above all both country has very bitter territorial dispute over Kashmir.
2. India-China Border
- The border remained peaceful till 1962, when Sino-India war lead to rise in tensions and large part of Laddakh (Aksai Chin) went to China.
- Despite all, this border remains generally peaceful. But in recent times many standoffs along the international border has occurred like Doklam standoff in 2017 and the recent conflict which took place in May-June 2020, proved most brutal at Galwan Valley, in Which India lost her 20 Brave soldiers on 15th June 2020.
- India's one of the main concern is China Pakistan Economic "Corridor (CPEC) constructing in PoK, which is a territory of India.
- Some part of Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) of China also passes through Pakistan occupied Kashmir(PoK) which is one of the serious concern for India.
3. India-Nepal Border
India-Nepal Friendship Treaty 1950 prohibits India and Nepal from manning the border by Armed forces as it is done along Indo-Pak borders. Which created various issues like smuggling and used byfby Pakistan for infiltration of militants and ISI agents.
- This border remained almost peaceful. But after the formation of the new government in Nepal under KP Sharma Oli the border and territorial issues intensified as Nepal staked claim over Kalapani-Limpiyadhura in Uttarakhand near Lipulekh La Pass, which was earlier no serious case of concern.
- In addition to above Nepalese migration to India impacted on Gorkhaland agitation and is found to intensify the conflict.
4. India-Bhutan Border
- Nepal and Bhutan appear to dictate terms to India at the local level by taking advantage of international attention.
- Bhutan is used very effectively and easily by militants of ULFA and Bodo militants, which serves as a safe heaven for them.
- Out of the total 1643 km border only 52 km border is manned by both the countries effectively due to difficult and hilly terrain and other issues along the border.
- This border is also used by insurgents from both sides to hide in each other's territory.
6. India-Bangladesh Border
- After 1971 this border became problem for India as lakhs of refugees from Bangladesh crossed the border for protecting themselves from Pakistan Army's aggression.
- One of the main issue with Bangladesh is that about 111 enclaves of India roughly around 17000 acres is still under the control of Bangladesh and 51 enclaves roughly about 7000 acre of land is in India's Control Indians in Bangladesh want ot come to India but Bangladesh is living in India do not wish to go to Bangladesh.
- However about 2777.038 acres land was received by India after an agreement through which 2267.682 acres land was ceded back to Bangladesh in 2015.
7. India-Srilanka Maritime Border
- India ceded Kachchtheevu to Srilanka which was strongly objected by Tamil Nadu government. The sovereignty of the Island is still under discussion.
- Despite all agreements fishermen still cross the maritime boundary and faces arrests in both sides. This all happens because no clearly visible Maritime boundary and illegal fishing activities.
- India should focus on friendly neighbours with which she has no serious dispute and should the problems peacefully and due consultations.
- With countries like Pakistan and China, India should use every diplomatic channels, international pressure groups, Economic-political measures, international organisation (UN, UNHRC, FATF etc) to counter their aggression.
- We should man borders effectively by using modern technologies like infrared equiped cameras, unmanned drones, laser guns to check infiltration across the boundary and drug paddling activity.