Level of urbanisation determines the level of economic development in modern world. It also determine the level of transition between agricultural activities and industrial growth. Urbanisation pushes or drives exchanges among services, capital, labour, information technology and social transactions.
Status of Urbanisation in Bihar
Urbanisation in Bihar is depressing, especially when we consider the plainer topography of the state, an ideal geographical conditions for the development of cities.
In Bihar only 11.3% people i.e 1.176 crore (according to Census-2011) live in urban areas, which is much smaller than the all India average of 31.2% Urbanisation. Bihar has 8.65% of the total population of the country, but it has only 3.1% of the total urban population of the country.
Between 2001-2011, the growth in urban population increased merely by 0.8% from 10.5% in 2001 to 11.3% in 2011. And if we consider longer period i.e. between 1961 to 2011 the increase in urban population is only 3.9% from 7.4% in 1961 to 11.3% in 2011.
Causes of Retarded Growth of Urbanisation in Bihar
- Very low level of literacy in the state i.e. only 6.18% people are educated.
- Lack of mineral resources in the state.
- Low level of infrastructural development such as roads, railway lines and other logistical and non-logistical infrastructures.
- Lack of infrastructure development and mineral resources ultimately led to lack of development in industrialisation, which is the primary requirement for urbanisation and urban development.
- Industries contribute only 20% to the Gross state Domestic Product (GSDP), which also serves as the impediment in the growth of urbanisation.
- Lack of financial resources to boost industrialisation and urban development in the state.
- Red Tapism and lack of political will power, which can be seen in Government's weak industrial policies.
Pattern of Urbanisation in Bihar
Urbanisation in Bihar seems to be utilitarian for the growth of the state. Urban places in Bihar are independent of metropolis and autonomous in their interactions with other settlements, whether local or global.
Out of 139 statutory towns and 60 Census towns in Bihar only 26 have population more than 1 lakh.
|Size/Class of City||Population Size||Urban Population (India)(in %)||Urban Population (Bihar)(in %)|
|I||Above 1 Lakh||60.79||57.5|
|VI||Less than 5000||0.5||0.2||0.2|
North Bihar is poor in terms of urbanisation having only 8.02% living in towns and cities but South Bihar is comparatively more urbanised than North Bihar.
For studying the pattern of urbanisation of Bihar in detail, we can divide the state into three parts:-
- North-East Bihar
- Rest of North Bihar
- South Bihar
I. North-East Bihar
This part consists of 7 districts i.e. Supaul, Saharsa, Madhepura, Araria, Kishanganj, Purnea and Katihar. These are divided into two divisions i.e. Koshi and Purnea. this part has very low level of urbanisation i.e. 7.4% (mush lesser than the urbanisation of Bihar itself).
Supaul and Madhepura have very poor urbanisation. Where only 5% population live in urban locations. This is due to frequent floods in the region. None of the districts in this part has urbanisation more than 10% except Purnea district where 10.5% of population live in urban areas. Remaining five districts have urbanisation ranging between 5-10%.
II. Rest of North Bihar
This part is divided into three divisions as given below:-
This division consists of three districts i.e. Darbhanga, Madhubani and Samastipur. This commissionary has 5.46% urbanisation, even lesser than previous Koshi and Purnea commissionary Darbhanga has highest (9.7%) urban population while Samastipur has only 3.5% urbanisation (lowest).
This division consists of three districts i.e. Saran, Siwan and Gopalganj which has slightly more urbanisation i.e. 7.08%.
- In this commissionary Saran has highest 8.9% urban population while Siwan has only 5.5% of urban population(lowest).
This commissionary comprised of six districts i.e. West Champaran, East Champaran, Sheohar, Sitamarhi, Muzaffarpur and Vaishali. These have even more urbanisation of about 8.025%.
- West Champaran has highest i.e. 10% urbanisation while Sheohar has lowest i.e. 4.3% Urban Population.
III. South Bihar
This part has four divisions:-
1. Patna Division
This commissionary has six districts i.e. Patna, Nalanda, Buxar, Bhojpur, Rohtas and Kaimur. This division has highest urbanisation of about 22.72%.
- Patna has highest urbanisation of about 43.1%, while Kaimur has lowest urbanisation having only 4% urban population.
2. Munger Division
This division consists of Munger, Jamui, Lakhisarai, Shekhpura and two districts of North-bihar i.e. Begusarai and Khagaria. This commissionary has second highest urban population i.e. about 15.33%.
- In this division, Munger has highest urban population of 27.8% while Khagaria has lowest i.e. 5.2% urban population.
3. Bhagalpur Division
This division has five districts i.e. Aurangabad, Arwal, Jehanabad, Gaya and Nawada. This division has 11.09% urban population.
- In this division, Gaya has highest 13.2% urban population Arwal has lowest i.e. 7.4%.
Government Policies for Urban Development in Bihar
Public Expenditure on Urban Development
In recent past state government has increased it's focus on urban infrastructure development. The state government has increased it's expenditure urbanisation by humongous 131% in six years between 2011-12 to 2017-18. In 2011-12 actual expenditure of the state government on urban development was only ₹1395 crore, which was increased to ₹3227 crore in 2017-18 (according to Economic Survey report, 2019-2020).
Urban Development Plans by State Government
The state government constantly endeavouring to provide better facilities in urban locations through various schemes.
I. Mukhyamantri Saat Nishchay Yojana
Under this scheme the government of Bihar focuses on seven resolves at Improving lives of urban population, through education skill development, electricity connection, piped water supply, road and drainage development. Under this scheme two sub schemes were launched focusing mainly on urban development.
1. Mukhyamantri Shahari Peyjal Nishchay Yojana:-
To fulfill one of the seven Nishchayas(resolves) of the state government i.e. 'Har Ghar Nal Ka Jal' government of Bihar had launched this scheme. It will benefit 1095 lakh households living in 141 urban centres as large number of households in urban areas are dependent on hand pumps. The scheme aimed at achieving the target of 100% piped water supply in all urban centres by 2019-20.
This scheme is being implemented by Bihar Rajya Jal Parishad (BRJD), Bihar Urban Infrastructure Development Corporation (BUIDCO), Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) and Urban Local Bodies(ULBs).
To fulfill two resolves out of seven i.e. 'Ghar Tak Pakki Nali and Galiyan', this scheme was launched. The scheme was launched with the aim of integrating each house located in urban areas with the permanent concretised streets and drainage system.
- Through this scheme about 3,65,490 households will be benefited by 2019-20.
Urban Development Plans Funded Through Centre-State Collaboration
I. Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG)
The main objective of the programme is to improve the Solid Waste Management (SWM), water supply and sewerage pattern in two urban centres in the state i.e.
- Patna-Danapur-Khagaul-Bihar Sharif
- Bodh Gaya
II. Namami Gange Scheme
Main objective of the scheme is to improve river sanitation and development of cities along the river Ganga across the country. Under this scheme 32 towns were identified along the river in Bihar for the purpose of cleaning and rejuvenating the river.
III. Integrated Housing and Slum Development Plan (IHSDP)
This scheme focuses on improving the living conditions of the slum dwellers, through construction of new houses as well as rehabilitation of existing dissipated houses in urban areas.
IV. Deen Dayal Antyoday Yojana - National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)
This scheme was launched to address concerns of the urban poor, who are vulnerable and to provide them opportunities to alleviate their concerns like employment and sustainable livelihood.
The schemes is trying to enable urban poor people such as construction workers, street vendors etc. with access to suitable, institutional credit, social security, and skills which will ultimately lead to improvement in their standard of living and working condition.
This scheme has five components as follows:-
1. Social Mobilisation and Institutional Development (SM&ID)
NULM focuses on time-bound increase in the outreach of Self Help Groups (SHGs) into urban poor. The scheme aims at bringing at least one person (preferably a woman) from each household under SHGs. It will enable urban poor with social financing to support their financial and social needs.
The number SHGs in Bihar formed under NULM has increased remarkably from 2185 in 2017-18 to 56,402 in 2018-19.
2. Employment through Skill Training and Placement(EST&P)
The scheme is being implemented by NULM in association with Bihar Skill Development Mission(BSDM). The scheme focuses on training BPL youths and enabling them to get either salaried employment or self employment.
Under this scheme 4083 youths from SC, ST and other BPL categories were trained in 20818-19.
3. Financial Inclusion and Self Employment Programme (FI&SEP)
This component of NULM focuses on enabling urban poor to get loans for their own ventures suited to their skill, aptitude and local conditions.
The scheme also enables them to get meaningful training opportunities through Rural Self Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs) to enable them in pursuing their self-owned ventures.
Under this component 2891 beneficiaries get benefit in 2018-19 which was much higher than the previous year's beneficiaries i.e. 1819 in 2017-18.
4. Support to Urban Street Vendors (SUSV)
This programme aims to organise street vending in all 142 urban centres. It first proposes to conduct a survey of the street vendors, and then issue I-Cards to them, which will enable them to get institutional credit and benefits out of welfare schemes.
- In 2018-19, 17,788 I-Cards were issued to street vendors in the state.
5. Shelter for Urban Homeless (SUH)
SUH aims at providing permanent shelter to urban homeless population including the basic facilities like water, sanitation, safety and security.
- Under this scheme, Government of Bihar (GoB) setup 48 new shelter homes (each being 50 bedded) and refurbished existing 66 shelter homes across the state.
V. Swachh Bharat Mission(SBM)
It was launched in 2014 to improve sanitation standards in the country. Bihar had set the target for the construction of 4.30 lakh toilets in urban areas.
- For construction of individual toilets in urban areas, the state government provides an additional ₹4000 along with center's ₹8000 assistance.
- Till date all 3367 wards in 141 urban centres across the state has been declared Open Defecation Free (ODF).
VI. Smart City Mission (SCM)
Out of the 100 cities selected by the GoI of India, three were from Bihar i.e. Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur and Bihar Sharif. In these cities the development works are being carried out on the basis of equal sharing of funds between centre and the state and remaining fund would come from PPP funding model.
VII. Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT Mission)
It is an urban transformation scheme, to establish more sustainable and robust urban infrastructure like sewerage, water supply, transportation networks etc.
Under this scheme Patna and 25 other cities in the state will be provided with adequate funding to boost urban infrastructure which could bring transformation in urban areas.