Emergence of Man and Races

Thursday, September 24, 2020

Emergence of man was started from the Origin of the Universe about 15 billion years ago followed by the origin of Solar system, Moon, multi-cellular creatures, Dinosaurs and finally Homonids (Apes).
Also Read: Possibilism : Meaning, Case Studies and Limitations 


Cosmic Calender 

Important Events Time
Origin of the Universe About 15 billion years ago
Origin of the Solar System About 4.6 billion years ago
Origin of Moon  About 4.51 billion years ago
Origin of Multi-cellular creatures About 600 million years ago (mid December*)
Appearance of Dinosaurs About 165 million years ago (Around 25 December*)
Appearance of Homonids (Apes) A few minutes before the expiry of 31 December*
Indian History About 3 seconds before the expiry of the year* 
American History About One second before the expiry of the year*
* = When we convert the whole time period of the Universe into 1 year (365 days)

First Men and their Movement

The oldest fossils of Homo Sapiens (modern men) are found along the Victoria Lake (Surrounding Countries are Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Kigali) in Africa. From here they moved towards South-West Asia in around 100,000 years ago and subsequently spread across the rest of Asia.

Australia had been occupied by human beings in between 60000-40000 years ago. It is believed that they went there on boats from Africa and Asia after crossing Indian Ocean. 

Europe was colonised by 40000 years ago and only after which the evidences of human art, rituals and symbolism began to accumulate.

About 15,000 years ago, humans had reached America either by crossing Bering Land which existed during the Ice Age or by crossing Atlantic Ocean by using boats. Far flung islands such as New Zealand and Hawaii had been inhabited by men only in the last 2000 years.


Categorisation of humans into different groups on the basis of differences in skin colour and other physical characteristics (such as height, chin, head, jaw etc.) is known as racism and such groups are called as  Races. Even though the latter ones have more significance in terms of human activity, but in general perception races are identified mainly on the basis of skin colour.

Another group of Anthropologists define race as a permanent distinguishing physical characteristics of different groups and to which people concerned attach certain interpretations.

Races are also defined as biological groupings, which are distinguished and classified on the basis of certain genetically transmitted physical characteristics.

Emergence of Races

The theory of racism was developed for the first time during the period of Great Discoveries (14th and 15th century) and Colonialism (17th-20th century). During this period ranging from 15th to 20th century Europeans started projecting themselves to be of superior race than other races (especially in their colonies).

Scientific Logic Behind Racism

The differences in the physical characteristics of different races are likely due to the long history of adaptations by different groups of human life in different types of physical environment and climatic conditions.

Sunlight stimulates the growth of Melanin in human body, which helps in protecting human skin from dangerous UV Rays coming from Sun. Increase in the content of melanin in our skin make it more darker, this is why people living in low latitudinal regions such as Equatorial and Tropical regions from Africa to Australia have more darker skin than people living in other parts of the world.

Another theory professes that the production of Vitamin D favours in peoples having least amount of pigmentation, or those who very easily absorbs the UV Ray and hence produce more amount of Vitamin D. 

Classification of Races

Physical Characteristics on the Basis of Which the Races are Classified

  1. Colour of skin
  2. Stature 
  3. The shape of head
  4. The shape of the face
  5. The shape of the nose
  6. Eyes
  7. Hair
  8. Body build
  9. Blood group

On the basis of above variables humans are divided into three major races and many sub races. The three major races are:-

  1. Caucasoid - Mainly found in Europe and Asia (especially South and South-west Asia)
  2. Negroid - Mainly found in Africa and Pacific Islands 
  3. Mongoloid - Mainly found in Asia, Pacific Islands, North & South America

Physical Characteristics of Major Races

Note: Please rotate the orientation of your mobile device to landscape mode to view Full Table.
Physical Traits Caucasoids Mongoloids Negroids
Skin Colour Pale reddish-white to Olive-brown Saffron to yellow-brown, some reddish-brown Brown to brown-black, some yellow-brown
Stature Medium to tall Medium-tall to medium-short Tall to very short 
Shape of Head Long to broad and short, medium high to very high Predominantly broad, height medium Predominantly long, height low to medium
  • Shape: Narrow to medium broad,
  • Malar Bones: Tends to high, 
  • Jaw: no prognathism
  • Shape: Medium broad to very broad, 
  • Malar Bones: Tends to medium high
  • Shape: Medium broad to narrow, 
  • Malar Bones:  high and flat, 
  • Jaw: Strong prognathism
  • Head hair colour : Light blonde to dark brown
  • Texture:  Fine to medium
  • Form:  Straight to wavy
  • Body hair: Moderate to profuse 
  • Head hair colour: Brown to brown black,
  • Texture:  Coarse
  • Form:  Straight
  • Body hair: Sparse 
  • Head Hair colour: Brown black, 
  • Texture:  coarse,
  • Form: Light curl to wooly  or frizzly, 
  • Body Hair : Slight
  • Colour: light blue to dark brown, 
  • Lateral eye fold: occasional
  • Colour: brown to dark brown, 
  • Medial epicanthic fold: very common
  • Colour: brown brown black, 
  • Vertical Eye fold : Common
  • Bridge: Usually high, 
  • Form: Narrow to medium broad 
  • Bridge: Usually low to medium, 
  • Form: Medium broad
  • Bridge: Usually low, 
  • Form: Medium broad to very broad 
Body Build Linear to lateral, slender to rugged Tends to be lateral, some linearity evident Tends to be lateral and muscular
Blood Group More 'A' than 'B' High in 'B' High in Rhe(cDe)