How Far Did the Swadeshi Movement Succeed In Achieving Its Goal
Extremists like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, and Aurobindo Ghosh demanded swaraj or complete independence from British Rule. They believed in Self-reliance as a weapon against domination. They promoted swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods. Swarajya (self-rule) was the ultimate aim that was to be achieved and the means were swadeshi and boycott.
- The Swadeshi movement launched in the early 20th century was a direct fallout of the decision of the British Indian government to partition Bengal.
- The use of Swadeshi goods and the boycott of foreign-made goods were the two main objectives of this movement.
- A Boycott Resolution was passed in Calcutta City Hall on August 7, 1905, where it was decided to boycott the use of Manchester cloth and salt from Liverpool.
- In the district of Barisal, the masses adopted this message of boycotting foreign-made goods, and the value of the British Cloth sold there fell sharply.
- Bande Mataram became the boycott and Swadeshi movement theme song.
- Among the movement's various forms of struggle, it was the boycott of foreign-made goods that encountered the greatest visible success on the practical and popular level.
- Boycotts and public burning of foreign clothes, picketing of shops selling foreign goods, all become common in remote Corners of Bengal as well as in many major cities and towns across the country.
- Another form of mass mobilization widely used by the Swadeshi movement was the Grops of Volunteers (Samitis).
- Ashwini Kumar Dutt, a school teacher, set up the Swadesh Bandhab Samiti in Barisal was the best-known volunteer Organization of all of them.
- The Shivaji and Ganpati festivals in Western India ( Maharashtra ) were organized by Likmanya Tilak to Spread the Swadeshi message and boycott movements among the masses.
- The Swadeshi and boycott movements emphasize ‘Atmasakthi’ or self-reliance as a means of reasserting national dignity in different fields.
- In the field of national education, this emphasis on self-reliance was most evident.
- The National College of Bengal was founded as its principal with Aurobindo Numerous National schools have been established throughout the Country in a Short period of time.
- The National Education Council was established in August 1906.
- In Indians, entrepreneurial zeal and self-reliance were also evident. The period saw an explosion of textile mills, factories of soap and match, tanneries, banks, insurance companies, shops, etc.
Reasons behind the decadence of the Swadeshi Movement
- Government Suppression.
- Congress split 1907
- Reach Limited
- Ideas failed
- Leadership issues
Importance of the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement
- The Swadeshi and boycott movements were India’s first 20th-century movement that encouraged mass participation in modern nationalist politics by a large Section of society.
- For the first time, women came out of their homes and joined processions and picketing of foreign-made goods shops.
- The swadeshi and boycott movements also changed the Character of the Indian National Congress (INC) from being driven mainly by moderates to the main agenda now being set by the ‘Extremists’ who gave the Cngress’s 1906 Calcutta Session’s Call for ‘Swaraj’ or self-government.
- The ideas of non-cooperation and passive resistance, Successfully applied many years later by Mahatma Gandhi, found their Origin in early 20th Century Swadeshi and boycott movements.
Discuss the Impact of external factors on Swadeshi movement
The Swadeshi movement was a self-sufficiency movement that was a part of the Indian independence movement and helped to shape Indian nationalism. The Swadeshi movement began in 1905. It was in fact the most successful of the pre-Gandhian movement After the British Government’s decision to partition Bengal was made public in December 1903, there was widespread dissatisfaction among Indians. In response, the Swadeshi movement was formally launched on August 7, 1905, from the Town Hall Calcutta, with the goal of reducing reliance on foreign goods in favor of domestic production.
Impact of the Swadeshi Movement
- It resulted in a significant decrease in foreign imports from 1905 to 1908.
- The movement resulted in the rise of extreme nationalism among young people, who turned to violence in order to put an end to British dominance.
- It compelled the British regime to make some concessions to Indians in the form of morley-minto reforms in 1909 Gopal Krishna Gokhale was instrumental in developing these reforms.
- Swadeshi Institutions have been established The Bengal National College, as well as a number of national schools and colleges across the country, were founded in the spirit of Rabindranath Tagore’s Shantiniketan.
- The National Council of Education was established in August 1906 to organize the national education system A Bengal Institute of Technology was established to provide technical education.
- It resulted in the establishment of swadeshi textile milk, soap and match factories, banks, and insurance—companies, and shops, amongst other things.
- It also helped to revitalize the Indian cottage industry The revival of Indian industries coincided with a resurgence in the use of indigenous goods.
- The partition of Bengal from 1905 to 1908 served as a catalyst for the Swadeshi movement.
About the Author
M.A ( History ) University 8th Merit
RTMNU Nagpur, University